Gut Microbiota & Probiotic Science; Where we Stand Today?

Gut Microbiota


  1. Gut microbiota and obesity: An opportunity to alter obesity through Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT).
    Lee P et al. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018 Oct 17. doi: 10.1111/dom.13561.
  2. Diversified gut microbiota in newborns of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus.
    Su M et al. PLoS One. 2018 Oct 17;13(10):e0205695. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205695.
  3. Role of Gut Microbiota in the Development and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer.
    Lin C et al. Digestion. 2018 Oct 17:1-7. doi: 10.1159/000494052.
  4. The Safety of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Crohn's Disease: Findings from A Long-Term Study.
    Wang H et al. Adv Ther. 2018 Oct 16. doi: 10.1007/s12325-018-0800-3.
  5. Prebiotics for Lactose Intolerance: Variability in Galacto-Oligosaccharide Utilization by Intestinal Lactobacillus rhamnosus.
    Arnold JW et al. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 16;10(10). pii: E1517. doi: 10.3390/nu10101517.
  6. Successful Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy improves symptoms of chronic constipation.
    Murata M et al. Helicobacter. 2018 Oct 15:e12543. doi: 10.1111/hel.12543.
  7. Gut dysbiosis and paediatric crohn's disease.
    Brusaferro A et al. J Infect. 2018 Oct 15. pii: S0163-4453(18)30308-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2018.10.005
  8. Focus on the gut-brain axis: Multiple sclerosis, the intestinal barrier and the microbiome.
    Camara-Lemarroy CR et al. World J Gastroenterol. 2018 Oct 7;24(37):4217-4223. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i37.4217.
  9. A Review: The Fate of Bacteriocins in the Human Gastro-Intestinal Tract: Do They Cross the Gut-Blood Barrier?
    Dicks LMT et al. Front Microbiol. 2018 Sep 28;9:2297. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02297.
  10. Synbiotics modulate gut microbiota and reduce enteritis and ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with sepsis: a randomized controlled trial.
    Shimizu K et al. Crit Care. 2018 Sep 27;22(1):239. doi: 10.1186/s13054-018-2167-x.
  11. Reconstitution of the gut microbiota of antibiotic-treated patients by autologous fecal microbiota transplant.
    Taur Y et al. Sci Transl Med. 2018 Sep 26;10(460). pii: eaap9489. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aap9489.
  12. Regulation of the effector function of CD8+ T cells by gut microbiota-derived metabolite butyrate.
    Luu M et al. Sci Rep. 2018 Sep 26;8(1):14430. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-32860-x.
  13. The Gut Microbiota in the Pathogenesis and Therapeutics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
    Zuo T et al. Front Microbiol. 2018 Sep 25;9:2247. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02247.
  14. Dietary destabilisation of the balance between the microbiota and the colonic mucus barrier.
    Birchenough G et al. Gut Microbes. 2018 Sep 25:1-5.
  15. The Gut Microbiota and Dysbiosis in Autism Spectrum Disorders.
    Hughes HK et al. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2018 Sep 24;18(11):81. doi: 10.1007/s11910-018-0887-6.
  16. Lifestyle Factors Affecting the Gut Microbiota's Relationship with Type 1 Diabetes.
    Gülden E et al. Curr Diab Rep. 2018 Sep 24;18(11):111. doi: 10.1007/s11892-018-1098-x.
  17. Maternal gut and breast milk microbiota affect infant gut antibiotic resistome and mobile genetic elements.
    Pärnänen K et al. Nat Commun. 2018 Sep 24;9(1):3891. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-06393-w.
  18. Enrichment of gut-derived Fusobacterium is associated with suboptimal immune recovery in HIV-infected individuals.
    Lee SC et al. Sci Rep. 2018 Sep 24;8(1):14277. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-32585-x.
  19. Linking gut microbiota, metabolic syndrome and economic status based on a population-level analysis.
    He Y et al. Microbiome. 2018 Sep 24;6(1):172. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0557-6.
  20. Effects of an oral synbiotic on the gastrointestinal immune system and microbiota in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.
    Moser AM et al. Eur J Nutr. 2018 Sep 24. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1826-7.
  21. Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 supplementation improves inflammatory status in insulin-resistant obese children.
    Sanchis-Chordà J et al. Eur J Nutr. 2018 Sep 24. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1828-5.
  22. Gluconeogenic growth of Vibrio cholerae is important for competing with host gut microbiota.
    Wang J et al. J Med Microbiol. 2018 Sep 24. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000828.
  23. Allergen Immunization Induces Major Changes in Microbiota Composition and Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production in Different Gut Segments in a Mouse Model of Lupine Food Allergy.
    Andreassen M et al. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2018 Sep 21:1-13.
  24. Behavioral response to fiber feedingis cohort-dependent and associated with gut microbiotacomposition in mice.
    Mailing LJ et al. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Sep 19. pii: S0166-4328(18)31068-4.
  25. Reduced colonic mucin degradation in breastfed infants colonized by Bifidobacterium longumsubsp. infantis EVC001.
    Karav S et al. FEBS Open Bio. 2018 Sep 17;8(10):1649-1657.
  26. Alterations in the Urinary Microbiota Are Associated With Cesarean Delivery.
    Liu F et al. Front Microbiol. 2018 Sep 12;9:2193. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02193.
  27. Effects of Psychological, Environmental and Physical Stressors on the Gut Microbiota.
    Karl JP et al. Front Microbiol. 2018 Sep 11;9:2013. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02013.
  28. Emerging Role of Diet and Microbiota Interactions in Neuroinflammation.
    Janakiraman M et al. Front Immunol. 2018 Sep 11;9:2067. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02067.
  29. Complex Network of NKT Cell Subsets Controls Immune Homeostasis in Liver and Gut.
    Marrero I et al. Front Immunol. 2018 Sep 11;9:2082. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02082.
  30. Therapeutic Potential of the Gut Microbiota in the Prevention and Treatment of Sepsis.
    Haak BW et al. Front Immunol. 2018 Sep 10;9:2042. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02042.
  31. The gut-brain axis in health neuroscience: implications for functional gastrointestinal disorders and appetite regulation.
    Weltens N et al. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 Sep;1428(1):129-150.
  32. Human gut microbiome: hopes, threats and promises.
    Cani PD et al. Gut. 2018 Sep;67(9):1716-1725. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2018-316723.
  33. Gut microbiota mediates the anti-obesity effect of calorie restriction in mice.
    Wang S et al. Sci Rep. 2018 Aug 29;8(1):13037. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-31353-1.
  34. Paradigms of Lung Microbiota Functions in Health and Disease, Particularly, in Asthma.
    Mathieu E et al. Front Physiol. 2018 Aug 21;9:1168. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.01168.
  35. Multi-omics approach to elucidate the gut microbiota activity: Metaproteomics and metagenomics connection.
    Guirro M et al. Electrophoresis. 2018 Jul;39(13):1692-1701
  36. Gut microbiota is associated with obesity and cardiometabolic disease in a population in the midst of Westernization.
    de la Cuesta-Zuluaga J et al. Sci Rep. 2018 Jul 27;8(1):11356. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-29687-x.
  37. Microbiome and Allergic Diseases.
    Pascal M et al. Front Immunol. 2018 Jul 17;9:1584. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018. 01584.
  38. Gut microbiota: a new way to take your vitamins.
    Gomes-Neto JC et al. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jul 10. doi: 10.1038/s41575-018-0044-3.
  39. Microbiome Research Is Becoming the Key to Better Understanding Health and Nutrition.
    Hadrich D et al. Front Genet. 2018 Jun 13;9:212. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2018.00212.
  40. Role of the gut microbiota in nutrition and health.
    Valdes AM et al. BMJ. 2018 Jun 13;361:k2179. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k2179.
  41. Gastrointestinal Neuropathies: New Insights and Emerging Therapies.
    Pesce M et al. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2018;47(4):877-894.
  42. Brain-Gut Axis: Clinical Implications.
    Khlevner J et al. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2018;47(4):727-739.
  43. The Role of the Gut Microbiome in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
    Roychowdhury S et al; Med Sci (Basel) (2018) Jun 5;6(2). pii: E47. doi: 10.3390/medsci6020047.
  44. Pharmacomicrobiomics: exploiting the drug-microbiota interactions in anticancer therapies.
    Panebianco C et al; Microbiome (2018) May 22; 6: 92. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0483-7
  45. The role of the microbiome for human health: from basic science to clinical applications.
    Mohajeri MH et al; Eur J Nutr (2018) May 10; 57(Suppl 1): 1–14. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1703-4
  46. The Relationship between Frequently Used Glucose-Lowering Agents and Gut Microbiota in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Lv Yet al; J Diabetes Res (2018) May 7: 1890978. doi: 10.1155/2018/1890978
  47. Microbiota transplantation: concept, methodology and strategy for its modernization.
    Zhang F et al; Protein Cell. (2018) May; 9(5): 462–473.
  48. Oral Bacterial and Fungal Microbiome Impacts Colorectal Carcinogenesis.
    Klimesova K et al; Front Microbiol (2018) Apr 20; 9: 774. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00774
  49. Small Intestine Microbiota Regulate Host Digestive and Absorptive Adaptive Responses to Dietary Lipids.
    Martinez-Guryn K et al; Cell Host Microbe (2018) Apr 11;23(4):458-469.e5.
  50. Impacts of microbiome metabolites on immune regulation and autoimmunity.
    Haase S et al; Immunology (2018) Apr 11; doi: 10.1111/imm.12933.
  51. The Influence of the Gut Microbiome on Cancer, Immunity, and Cancer Immunotherapy.
    Gopalakrishnan V et al; Cancer Cell; 2018 Apr 9;33(4):570-580
  52. Role of the Microbiome in Food Allergy.
    Ho HE et al; Curr Allergy Asthma Rep (2018) Apr 5;18(4):27. doi: 10.1007/s11882-018-0780-z.
  53. New Therapeutic Drugs from Bioactive Natural Molecules: the Role of Gut Microbiota Metabolism in Neurodegenerative Diseases.
    Di Meo F et al; Curr Drug Metab (2018) Apr 3. Doi: 10.2174/1389200219666180404094147.
  54. Microbiota effects on cancer: from risks to therapies.
    Rea D et al; Oncotarget (2018) Apr 3; 9(25): 17915–17927
  55. Gut Microbiota Contribute to Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle Size, Composition, and Function: Biological Basis for a Gut-Muscle Axis.
    Gregory J et al; Calcif Tissue Int (2018) Apr; 102(4): 433–442.
  56. Gut Microbiota in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Current Applications and Future Perspectives.
    Chu F et al; Mediators Inflamm (2018) Apr 2: 8168717. doi: 10.1155/2018/8168717
  57. Role of microbiota in the autism spectrum disorders.
    Campion D et al; Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol (2018) Mar 30. doi: 10.23736/S1121-421X.18.02493-5
  58. Gut microbiota as a source of novel antimicrobials.
    Garcia-Gutierrez E et al; Gut Microbes (2018) Mar 27:1-57. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2 018. 1455790.
  59. The developing gut microbiota and its consequences for health.
    Butel MJ et al; J Dev Orig Health Dis (2018) Mar 22:1-8. doi: 10.1017/S2040174418000119.
  60. The role of the gut microbiota in the pathology and prevention of liver disease.
    Barrera A et al; J Nutr Biochem (2018) Mar 16; 60:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.03.006.
  61. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases
    Opazo M C et al; Front Microbiol (2018) 9: 432. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00432
  62. Of Microbes and Minds: A Narrative Review on the Second Brain Aging
    Calvani R et al. Front Med (Lausanne) (2018) Mar 2; 5: 53. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2018.00053
  63. A Review of Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Future in Therapies.
    Janeiro B et al; Adv Ther (2018); 35(3): 289–310.
  64. Gut Microbial Changes, Interactions, and Their Implications on Human Lifecycle: An Ageing Perspective
    Vemuri R et al; Biomed Res Int (2018): 4178607.doi: 10.1155/2018/4178607
  65. Gut Microbiota and the Neuroendocrine System
    Aitak Farzi et al; Neurotherapeutics (2018) Jan; 15(1): 5–22.
  66. Oral-gut connection: one step closer to an integrated view of the gastrointestinal tract?
    Lira-Junior R et al; Mucosal Immunol (2018) Jan 3. doi: 10.1038/mi.2017.116.

Examples of putative associations between Microbiota and “Disease states”

Clinical condition

Observed differences in microbiota compared to a “healthy state”


Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)

Greater bacterial diversity observed in women with BV; BV-associated bacteria found to correlate with diagnostic criteria (Amsel’s clinical criteria).

Fredricks DN et al, 2005 N Engl J Med 353:1899-911; Srinivasan S et al, 2012 PLoS ONE 7(6): e37818.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD; colitis)

Enterobacteriaceae found to correlate with colitis; global microbiota profiles of phylotype and / or gene content distinguish IBD individuals.

Frank DN et al 2007 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:13780-85; Garrett WS et al, 2010 Cell Host Microbe 8:292-300; Qin J et al, 2010 Nature 464:59-65.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D)

Bacterial diversity decreased over time in children; functionally aberrant gene content.

Giongo A et al, 2011 ISME J 5:82-89; Brown CT et al, 2011 PLoS ONE 6(10):e25792.

Type 2 diabetes

Relative proportions of Clostridia (phylum Firmicutes) significantly reduced in diabetic group.

Larsen N et al, 2010 PLoS One 5(2):e9085.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Segmented filamentous bacteria or Lactobacillus sp. can activate TH17 cells resulting in inflammation.

Reviewed in Scher JU and Abramson SB 2011 Nat Rev Rheumatol 7(10):569-78.

Colorectal Cancer

Increased abundances of Fusobacterium sp.; colitis can promote tumorigenesis by altering microbial composition.

Castellarin M et al, 2012 Genome Res 22:299-306

Adapted from: Eloe-Fadrosh EA and Rasko DA (2013) The Human Microbiome: From Symbiosis to Pathogenesis. Annu Rev Med 64:145-63.



  1. Probiotics as a Potential Immunomodulating Pharmabiotics in Allergic Diseases: Current Status and Future Prospects.
    Sharma G et al. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2018 Nov;10(6):575-590. doi: 10.4168/aair.2018.10.6.575
  2. Current status of probiotics usage for the prevention of a first episode of Clostridium difficile infection.
    Cantero C et al. Rev Med Suisse. 2018 Oct 17;14(623):1834-1837.
  3. Probiotic supplementation restores normal microbiota composition and function in antibiotic-treated and in caesarean-born infants.
    Korpela K et al. Microbiome. 2018 Oct 16;6(1):182. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0567-4.
  4. Probiotics importance and their immunomodulatory properties.
    Yousefi B et al. J Cell Physiol. 2018 Oct 14. doi: 10.1002/jcp.27559.
  5. Pathogen elimination by probiotic Bacillus via signalling interference.
    Piewngam P et al. Nature. 2018 Oct 10. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0616-y.
  6. Are dairy products containing probiotics beneficial for oral health? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Nadelman P et al. Clin Oral Investig. 2018 Oct 9. doi: 10.1007/s00784-018-2682-9.
  7. Probiotic supplementation and topical application in the treatment of pediatric atopic dermatitis.
    Marcinkowska M et al. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2018 Oct 8. doi: 10.2174/1389201019666181008113149
  8. Clinical results of improvement in periodontal condition by administration of oral probiotics.
    Cantore S et al. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2018 Sep-Oct;32(5):1329-1334.
  9. Are probiotics and prebiotics effective in the prevention of travellers' diarrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    McFarland LV et al. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 29. pii: S1477-8939(18)30258-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2018.09.007.
  10. Effects of oral probiotic supplementation on gut Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium populations and the clinical status of low-birth-weight preterm neonates: a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
    Strus M et al. Infect Drug Resist. 2018 Sep 21;11:1557-1571. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S166348.
  11. Probiotics combined with aminosalicylic acid affiliates remission of ulcerative colitis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial.
    Peng L et al. Biosci Rep. 2018 Sep 17. pii: BSR20180943. doi: 10.1042/BSR20180943.
  12. The Lactobacillus casei Group: History and Health Related Applications.
    Hill D et al. Front Microbiol. 2018 Sep 10;9:2107. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02107.
  13. Effect of Probiotic Supplementation on CD4 Cell Count in HIV-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
    Kazemi A et al. J Diet Suppl. 2018 Sep 3;15(5):776-788. doi: 10.1080/19390211.2017.1380103.
  14. Effect of probiotics and synbiotics consumption on serum concentrations of liver function test enzymes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Khalesi S et al. Eur J Nutr. 2018 Sep;57(6):2037-2053. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1568-y.
  15. Efficacy of probiotics: clinical and microbial parameters of halitosis.
    Georgiou AC et al. J Breath Res. 2018 Aug 21;12(4):046010. doi: 10.1088/1752-7163/aacf49.
  16. Effects of Probiotics on Inflammation and Uremic Toxins Among Patients on Dialysis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Thongprayoon C et al. Dig Dis Sci. 2018 Aug 11. doi: 10.1007/s10620-018-5243-9.
  17. The effects of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplementation on blood parameters of renal function: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.
    Firouzi S et al. Nutrition. 2018 Jul - Aug;51-52:104-113. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.01.007.
  18. Reducing healthcare-associated infections incidence by a probiotic-based sanitation system: A multicentre, prospective, intervention study.
    Caselli E et al. PLoS One. 2018 Jul 12;13(7):e0199616. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199616.
  19. Treatment and Prevention of Recurrent Lower Urinary Tract Infections in Women: A Rapid Review with Practice Recommendations.
    Smith AL et al. J Urol. 2018 Jun 22. pii: S0022-5347(18)43408-8. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2018.04.088.
  20. The effects of probiotic supplementation on metabolic status in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease.
    Raygan F et al. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2018 Jun 19;10:51. doi: 10.1186/s13098-018-0353-2.
  21. Effect of administration of a probiotic preparation on gut microbiota and immune response in healthy women in India: an open-label, single-arm pilot study.
    Singh A et al. BMC Gastroenterol. 2018 Jun 15;18(1):85. doi: 10.1186/s12876-018-0819-6.
  22. Probiotics Ameliorate Stool Consistency in Patients with Chronic Constipation: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.
    Yoon JY et al. Dig Dis Sci. 2018 Jun 7. doi: 10.1007/s10620-018-5139-8.
  23. Treatment efficacy of probiotics on atopic dermatitis, zooming in on infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Zhao M et al. Int J Dermatol. 2018 Jun;57(6):635-641. doi: 10.1111/ijd.13873.
  24. Influence of Probiotics Administration on Gut Microbiota Core: A Review on the Effects on Appetite Control, Glucose, and Lipid Metabolism.
    Falcinelli S et al; J Clin Gastroenterol (2018) Jun 2.doi:10.1097/MCG.0000000000001064.
  25. Strain-Specificity and Disease-Specificity of Probiotic Efficacy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    McFarland LV et al; Front Med (Lausanne) (2018) May 7;5:124
  26. Probiotics drive gut microbiome triggering emotional brain signatures.
    Bagga D et al; Gut Microbes (2018) May 3:0. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2018.1460015
  27. Effect of probiotic and prebiotic vs placebo on psychological outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder: A randomized clinical trial.
    Kazemi A et al; Clin Nutr (2018) Apr 24. pii: S0261-5614(18)30161-4. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.04.010
  28. Oral Administration of Probiotics Increases Paneth Cells and Intestinal Antimicrobial Activity.
    Cazorla SI et al; Front Microbiol (2018) Apr 16;9:736. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00736. eCollection
  29. The use of probiotics in different phases of diverticular disease.
    Ojetti V et al; Rev Recent Clin Trials (2018) Apr 2. doi: 10.2174/1574887113666180402143140
  30. The Brain-Intestinal Mucosa-Appendix- Microbiome-Brain Loop.
    Vitetta L et al; Diseases (2018) Apr 1;6(2). pii: E23. doi: 10.3390/diseases6020023
  31. Systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials using probiotics in chronic periodontitis.
    Ikram S et al. J Investig Clin Dent. 2018 Mar 31:e12338. doi: 10.1111/jicd.12338.
  32. Efficacy of prophylactic probiotics in combination with antibiotics versus antibiotics alone for colorectal surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    Wu XD et al; J Surg Oncol (2018) Mar 24. doi: 10.1002/jso.25038.
  33. Microbiota Alteration After Long-Term Consumption of Probiotics in the Elderly.
    Gao R et al; Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins (2018) Mar 8. doi: 10.1007/s12602-018-9403-1.
  34. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of probiotics for antibiotic-associated diarrhea: Systematic review with network meta-analysis.
    Cai J et al; United European Gastroenterol J (2018) Mar;6(2):169-180.
  35. Modifying progression of aging and reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases by probiotics and synbiotics.
    Lye HS et al; Front Biosci (Elite Ed) (2018) Mar 1;10:344-351.
  36. Probiotics and necrotizing enterocolitis.
    Patel RM et al; Semin Pediatr Surg (2018) Feb;27(1):39-46.
  37. Is it Useful to Administer Probiotics Together with Proton Pump Inhibitors in Children with Gastroesophageal Reflux?
    Belei O et al; J Neurogastroenterol Motil (2018) Jan 30;24(1):51-57.
  38. Probiotics: Myths or facts about their role in allergy prevention.
    Krzych-Fałta E et al; Adv Clin Exp Med (2018) Jan;27(1):119-124.

Clinical efficacy of probiotics in different disease conditions

Clinical Condition Results / Conclusions References

Gastrointestinal Diseases

This meta-analysis reviewed 84 trials including 10,351 patients; Probiotics are generally beneficial in treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

Ritchie ML and Romanuk TN, 2012 PLoS ONE 7(4):e34938.

Treatment of Acute Infectious Diarrhoea

This Cochrane review analysed 63 studies which includes 8014 subjects; Shortened duration of diarrhoea and reduced stool frequency.

Allen SJ et al, 2010 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 11:CD003048.

Prevention and Treatment of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea (AAD)

This meta-analysis reviewed 82 RCT’s involving 11811 subjects which suggests that probiotics are associated with reduction in AAD with an RR of 0.58. The treatment effect equates to an NNT of 13.

Hempel S et al, 2012 JAMA 307(18): 1959-1967.

Prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)

This review includes 31 RCT’s with 4492 subjects that reduce the risk of developing CDAD by 64% in adults and children.

Goldenberg JZ et al, 2013 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 5:CD006095.

Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

The study includes 19 RCT’s involving 1650 patients that concludes probiotics appear to be efficacious in IBS but the magnitude of benefit and the most effective species and strain are uncertain.

Moayyedi P et al, 2010 Gut 59:325-332.


This meta-analysis reviewed 5 RCT’s involving 377 subjects and found that in adults, effect of treatment with Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and E.coli Nissle 1917 was observed in defecation frequency and stool consistency. In children, L. casei rhamnosus Lcr35 showed beneficial effect.

Chmielewska A and Szajewska H, 2010 World J Gastroenterol 16(1): 69-75.

Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)

This meta-analysis reviewed 11 RCT’s with total of 2176 subjects; The probiotic studies using strains of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces and/or S thermophilus to prevent NEC shows reduction in the frequency and reduction in overall mortality.

Deshpande G et al, 2010 Pediatrics [Meta-Analysis] 125:921-30.

Common Infectious diseases

A meta-analysis conducted on the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) analysed 10 trials involving 3451 participants and found that probiotics reduced the number of participants experiencing acute URTI.

Hao Q et al, 2011 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 9:CD006895.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

This review includes 4 RCT’s with total of 134 patients that shows probiotic therapies can reduce liver aminotransferases, total-cholesterol, TNF-α and improve insulin resistance in NAFLD patients.

Ma YY et al, 2013 World J Gastroenterol 19(40):6911-6918.

Gut Microbiota and Probiotic Science Foundation instituted the Lifetime Achievement Award to recognize the outstanding contribution of stalwarts to the science and profession of Probiotics and Gut Microbiota

© 2019, All Rights Reserved by Gut Microbiota and Probiotic Science Foundation (India).

Visitor Counts : 046640