Probiotic

  1. Increased anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C strain encapsulated in carrageenan evaluated in gastric simulations under fasting conditions.
    Gutiérrez-Zamorano C et al. Food Res Int. 2019 Jul:121:812-816. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.12.064.
  2. Efficacy of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis.
    Liu L et al. Dig Dis Sci. 2019 Jun 15. doi: 10.1007/s10620-019-05699-z.
  3. Effects of a formula with a probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis Supplement on the gut microbiota of low birth weight infants.
    Chi C et al. Eur J Nutr. 2019 Jun 13. doi: 10.1007/s00394-019-02006-4.
  4. Pediococcus Acidilactici NRRL B-50517 as a Safe Probiotic for Regulation of Weight Related Pro-inflammatory Cytokines: A Double-blind Placebo-controlled Pilot Study (P21-026-19).
    Lin JJ et al. Curr Dev Nutr. 2019 Jun 13:3(Suppl 1). pii: nzz041.P21-026-19. doi: 10.1093/cdn/nzz041.P21-026-19.
  5. Impact of endurance exercise and probiotic supplementation on the intestinal microbiota: a cross-over pilot study.
    Schmitz L et al. Pilot Feasibility Stud. 2019 Jun 8:5:76. doi: 10.1186/s40814-019-0459-9.
  6. Understanding the Role of the Gut Microbiome and Microbial Metabolites in Obesity and Obesity-Associated Metabolic Disorders: Current Evidence and Perspectives.
    Vallianou N Curr Obes Rep. 2019 Jun 7. doi: 10.1007/s13679-019-00352-2.
  7. Pilot study to explore the prophylactic efficacy of oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in preventing recurrent pharyngo-tonsillar episodes in pediatric patients.
    Marini G et al. J Gen Med. 2019 Jun 5:12:213-217. doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S168209
  8. Probiotic mechanisms of action.
    Halloran K et al. Early Hum Dev. 2019 Jun 4. pii: S0378-3782(19)30294-4. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2019.05.010.
  9. Are probiotics useful for therapy of Helicobacter pylori diseases?
    Eslami M et al. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Jun:64:99-108. doi: 10.1016/j.cimid.2019.02.010.
  10. Probiotic Lactobacillus casei: Effective for Managing Childhood Diarrhea by Altering Gut Microbiota and Attenuating Fecal Inflammatory Markers
    Hung-Hsiang Lai et al. Nutrients. 2019 May 23:11(5): 1150. doi: 10.3390/nu11051150
  11. Probiotics and bone disorders: the role of RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway.
    Amin N et al. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2019 May 22. doi: 10.1007/s40520-019-01223-5.
  12. In vitro beneficial effects of Streptococcus Dentisani as potential oral probiotic for periodontal diseases.
    Esteban-Fernández A et al. J Periodontol. 2019 May 21. doi: 10.1002/JPER.18-0751.
  13. Efficacy of Probiotic Prophylaxis After The First Febrile Urinary Tract Infection in Children With Normal Urinary Tracts.
    Sadeghi-Bojd S et J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2019 May 17. pii: piz025. doi: 10.1093/jpids/piz025.
  14. A single intravesical instillation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is safe in children and adults with neuropathic bladder: A phase Ia clinical trial.
    Forster CS et al. J Spinal Cord Med. 2019 May 17:1-8. doi: 10.1080/10790268.2019.1616456.
  15. Management of STEC Gastroenteritis: Is There a Role for Probiotics?
    Giordano M et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 May 12:16(9). pii: E1649. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16091649.
  16. The Immunomodulatory Properties of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Probiotics: A Novel Approach for the Management of Gastrointestinal Diseases.
    Molina-Tijeras JA et al. Nutrients. 2019 May 9:11(5). pii: E1038. doi: 10.3390/nu11051038.
  17. Beneficial effect of probiotics supplements in reflux esophagitis treated with esomeprazole: A randomized controlled trial.
    Sun QH et al. World J Gastroenterol. 2019 May 7:25(17):2110-2121. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v25.i17.2110.
  18. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a multi-strain probiotic in patients with asymptomatic ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
    Bjarnason I et al. Inflammopharmacology. 2019 May 3. doi: 10.1007/s10787-019-00595-4.
  19. Changing our microbiome: Probiotics in dermatology.
    Yu Y et al. Br J Dermatol. 2019 May 3. doi: 10.1111/bjd.18088
  20. Probiotic supplements for relieving stress in healthy participants: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    Zhang N et al. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 May:98(20):e15416. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000015416.
  21. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
    Guo Q, et alCochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Apr 30:4:CD004827. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004827.pub5.
  22. The Potential Role of Probiotics in Controlling Overweight/Obesity and Associated Metabolic Parameters in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Wang ZB et al. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 Apr 15:2019:3862971. doi: 10.1155/2019/3862971
  23. Efficacy of Probiotic Therapy on Atopic Dermatitis in Adults Depends on the C-159T Polymorphism of the CD14 Receptor Gene - A Pilot Study.
    Litus O et al. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019 Apr 10:7(7):1053-1058. doi: 10.3889/oamjms.2019.242.
  24. Prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants - an updated review.
    Jin YT et al. World J Clin Pediatr. 2019 Apr 9:8(2):23-32. doi: 10.5409/wjcp.v8.i2.23.
  25. Probiotic Foods and Supplements Interventions for Metabolic Syndromes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Recent Clinical Trials.
    Dong Y et al. Ann Nutr Metab. 2019 March 19:74(3):224-241. doi: 10.1159/000499028.
  26. Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 alleviates stress and anxiety in adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
    Chong HX et al. Benef Microbes. 2019 Mar 18:1-20. doi: 10.3920/BM2018.0135.
  27. The Role of Probiotics and Prebiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity.
    Cerdó T et al. Nutrients. 2019 Mar 15:11(3). pii: E635. doi: 10.3390/nu11030635.
  28. Adherence capability and safety assessment of an indigenous probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC-5897.
    Bhat MI et al. Microb Pathog. 2019 Mar 9:130:120-130. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.03.009.
  29. Probiotics improve glucose and lipid metabolism in pregnant women: a meta-analysis
    Man-Man Han et al. Ann Transl Med. 2019 Mar:7(5): 99. doi: 10.21037/atm.2019.01.61
  30. Clostridium difficile Colitis Prevention and Treatment.
    Dinleyici M et al. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019 Jan 29. 1125:139-146. doi: 10.1007/5584_2018_322.
  31. Probiotics for preterm infants: A National Retrospective Cohort Study.
    Singh B et al. J Perinatol. 2019 Jan 28. doi: 10.1038/s41372-019-0315-z.
  32. Effect of Probiotic Use on Adverse Events in Adult Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: a Retrospective Cohort Study.
    Dore MP et al. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2019 Jan 26. doi: 10.1007/s12602-019-9517-0.
  33. Targeting Food Allergy with Probiotics.
    Paparo L et al. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019 Jan 26. doi: 10.1007/5584_2018_316.
  34. Oral probiotic administration during pregnancy prevents autism-related behaviors in offspring induced by maternal immune activation via anti-inflammation in mice.
    Wang X et al. Autism Res. 2019 Jan 25. doi: 10.1002/aur.2079
  35. Beneficial Effects of Probiotic Consumption on the Immune System.
    Maldonado Galdeano C et al. Ann Nutr Metab. 2019 Jan 23:74(2):115-124.
  36. Alternatives to Conventional Antibiotics in the Era of Antimicrobial Resistance.
    Ghosh C et al. Trends Microbiol. 2019 Jan 22. pii: S0966-842X(18)30286-5. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2018.12.010.
  37. Bacillus clausii UBBC-07 reduces severity of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age: a double blind placebo controlled study.
    Sudha MR et al. Benef Microbes. 2019 Jan 14:1-6. doi: 10.3920/BM2018.0094
  38. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG can protect malnourished children.
    Kara SS et al. Benef Microbes. 2019 Jan 14:1-8. doi: 10.3920/BM2018.0071.
  39. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment improves intestinal permeability and modulates microbiota dysbiosis in an experimental model of sepsis.
    Chen L et al. Int J Mol Med. 2019 Jan 7. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2019.4050.
  40. Use of a Novel Probiotic Formulation to Alleviate Lactose Intolerance Symptoms-a Pilot Study.
    Gingold-Belfer R et al. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2019 Jan 7. doi: 10.1007/s12602-018-9507-7
  41. Effect of probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and infancy in preventing atopic dermatitis in children: a Meta-analysis.
    Yin DG et al. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2019 Jan:21(1):82-88.
  42. Efficacy of probiotic supplement for gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Pan J et al. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2019 Jan:32(2):317-323. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1376318.
  43. Alleviation of low-fiber diet-induced constipation by probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 is based on correction of gut microbiota dysbiosis.
    Makizaki Y et al. Biosci Microbiota Food Health. 2019:38(2):49-53. doi: 10.12938/bmfh.18-020.

Clinical efficacy of probiotics in different disease conditions

Clinical Condition Results / Conclusions References

Gastrointestinal Diseases

This meta-analysis reviewed 84 trials including 10,351 patients; Probiotics are generally beneficial in treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

Ritchie ML and Romanuk TN, 2012 PLoS ONE 7(4):e34938.

Treatment of Acute Infectious Diarrhoea

This Cochrane review analysed 63 studies which includes 8014 subjects; Shortened duration of diarrhoea and reduced stool frequency.

Allen SJ et al, 2010 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 11:CD003048.

Prevention and Treatment of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea (AAD)

This meta-analysis reviewed 82 RCT’s involving 11811 subjects which suggests that probiotics are associated with reduction in AAD with an RR of 0.58. The treatment effect equates to an NNT of 13.

Hempel S et al, 2012 JAMA 307(18): 1959-1967.

Prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)

This review includes 31 RCT’s with 4492 subjects that reduce the risk of developing CDAD by 64% in adults and children.

Goldenberg JZ et al, 2013 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 5:CD006095.

Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

The study includes 19 RCT’s involving 1650 patients that concludes probiotics appear to be efficacious in IBS but the magnitude of benefit and the most effective species and strain are uncertain.

Moayyedi P et al, 2010 Gut 59:325-332.

Constipation

This meta-analysis reviewed 5 RCT’s involving 377 subjects and found that in adults, effect of treatment with Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and E.coli Nissle 1917 was observed in defecation frequency and stool consistency. In children, L. casei rhamnosus Lcr35 showed beneficial effect.

Chmielewska A and Szajewska H, 2010 World J Gastroenterol 16(1): 69-75.

Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)

This meta-analysis reviewed 11 RCT’s with total of 2176 subjects; The probiotic studies using strains of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces and/or S thermophilus to prevent NEC shows reduction in the frequency and reduction in overall mortality.

Deshpande G et al, 2010 Pediatrics [Meta-Analysis] 125:921-30.

Common Infectious diseases

A meta-analysis conducted on the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) analysed 10 trials involving 3451 participants and found that probiotics reduced the number of participants experiencing acute URTI.

Hao Q et al, 2011 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 9:CD006895.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

This review includes 4 RCT’s with total of 134 patients that shows probiotic therapies can reduce liver aminotransferases, total-cholesterol, TNF-α and improve insulin resistance in NAFLD patients.

Ma YY et al, 2013 World J Gastroenterol 19(40):6911-6918.

  1. Probiotics as a Potential Immunomodulating Pharmabiotics in Allergic Diseases: Current Status and Future Prospects.
    Sharma G et al. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2018 Nov;10(6):575-590. doi: 10.4168/aair.2018.10.6.575
  2. Current status of probiotics usage for the prevention of a first episode of Clostridium difficile infection.
    Cantero C et al. Rev Med Suisse. 2018 Oct 17;14(623):1834-1837.
  3. Probiotic supplementation restores normal microbiota composition and function in antibiotic-treated and in caesarean-born infants.
    Korpela K et al. Microbiome. 2018 Oct 16;6(1):182. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0567-4.
  4. Probiotics importance and their immunomodulatory properties.
    Yousefi B et al. J Cell Physiol. 2018 Oct 14. doi: 10.1002/jcp.27559.
  5. Pathogen elimination by probiotic Bacillus via signalling interference.
    Piewngam P et al. Nature. 2018 Oct 10. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0616-y.
  6. Are dairy products containing probiotics beneficial for oral health? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Nadelman P et al. Clin Oral Investig. 2018 Oct 9. doi: 10.1007/s00784-018-2682-9.
  7. Probiotic supplementation and topical application in the treatment of pediatric atopic dermatitis.
    Marcinkowska M et al. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2018 Oct 8. doi: 10.2174/1389201019666181008113149
  8. Clinical results of improvement in periodontal condition by administration of oral probiotics.
    Cantore S et al. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2018 Sep-Oct;32(5):1329-1334.
  9. Are probiotics and prebiotics effective in the prevention of travellers' diarrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    McFarland LV et al. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 29. pii: S1477-8939(18)30258-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2018.09.007.
  10. Effects of oral probiotic supplementation on gut Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium populations and the clinical status of low-birth-weight preterm neonates: a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
    Strus M et al. Infect Drug Resist. 2018 Sep 21;11:1557-1571. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S166348.
  11. Probiotics combined with aminosalicylic acid affiliates remission of ulcerative colitis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial.
    Peng L et al. Biosci Rep. 2018 Sep 17. pii: BSR20180943. doi: 10.1042/BSR20180943.
  12. The Lactobacillus casei Group: History and Health Related Applications.
    Hill D et al. Front Microbiol. 2018 Sep 10;9:2107. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02107.
  13. Effect of Probiotic Supplementation on CD4 Cell Count in HIV-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
    Kazemi A et al. J Diet Suppl. 2018 Sep 3;15(5):776-788. doi: 10.1080/19390211.2017.1380103.
  14. Effect of probiotics and synbiotics consumption on serum concentrations of liver function test enzymes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Khalesi S et al. Eur J Nutr. 2018 Sep;57(6):2037-2053. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1568-y.
  15. Efficacy of probiotics: clinical and microbial parameters of halitosis.
    Georgiou AC et al. J Breath Res. 2018 Aug 21;12(4):046010. doi: 10.1088/1752-7163/aacf49.
  16. Effects of Probiotics on Inflammation and Uremic Toxins Among Patients on Dialysis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Thongprayoon C et al. Dig Dis Sci. 2018 Aug 11. doi: 10.1007/s10620-018-5243-9.
  17. The effects of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplementation on blood parameters of renal function: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.
    Firouzi S et al. Nutrition. 2018 Jul - Aug;51-52:104-113. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.01.007.
  18. Reducing healthcare-associated infections incidence by a probiotic-based sanitation system: A multicentre, prospective, intervention study.
    Caselli E et al. PLoS One. 2018 Jul 12;13(7):e0199616. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199616.
  19. Treatment and Prevention of Recurrent Lower Urinary Tract Infections in Women: A Rapid Review with Practice Recommendations.
    Smith AL et al. J Urol. 2018 Jun 22. pii: S0022-5347(18)43408-8. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2018.04.088.
  20. The effects of probiotic supplementation on metabolic status in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease.
    Raygan F et al. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2018 Jun 19;10:51. doi: 10.1186/s13098-018-0353-2.
  21. Effect of administration of a probiotic preparation on gut microbiota and immune response in healthy women in India: an open-label, single-arm pilot study.
    Singh A et al. BMC Gastroenterol. 2018 Jun 15;18(1):85. doi: 10.1186/s12876-018-0819-6.
  22. Probiotics Ameliorate Stool Consistency in Patients with Chronic Constipation: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.
    Yoon JY et al. Dig Dis Sci. 2018 Jun 7. doi: 10.1007/s10620-018-5139-8.
  23. Treatment efficacy of probiotics on atopic dermatitis, zooming in on infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Zhao M et al. Int J Dermatol. 2018 Jun;57(6):635-641. doi: 10.1111/ijd.13873.
  24. Influence of Probiotics Administration on Gut Microbiota Core: A Review on the Effects on Appetite Control, Glucose, and Lipid Metabolism.
    Falcinelli S et al; J Clin Gastroenterol (2018) Jun 2.doi:10.1097/MCG.0000000000001064.
  25. Strain-Specificity and Disease-Specificity of Probiotic Efficacy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    McFarland LV et al; Front Med (Lausanne) (2018) May 7;5:124
  26. Probiotics drive gut microbiome triggering emotional brain signatures.
    Bagga D et al; Gut Microbes (2018) May 3:0. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2018.1460015
  27. Effect of probiotic and prebiotic vs placebo on psychological outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder: A randomized clinical trial.
    Kazemi A et al; Clin Nutr (2018) Apr 24. pii: S0261-5614(18)30161-4. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.04.010
  28. Oral Administration of Probiotics Increases Paneth Cells and Intestinal Antimicrobial Activity.
    Cazorla SI et al; Front Microbiol (2018) Apr 16;9:736. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00736. eCollection
  29. The use of probiotics in different phases of diverticular disease.
    Ojetti V et al; Rev Recent Clin Trials (2018) Apr 2. doi: 10.2174/1574887113666180402143140
  30. The Brain-Intestinal Mucosa-Appendix- Microbiome-Brain Loop.
    Vitetta L et al; Diseases (2018) Apr 1;6(2). pii: E23. doi: 10.3390/diseases6020023
  31. Systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials using probiotics in chronic periodontitis.
    Ikram S et al. J Investig Clin Dent. 2018 Mar 31:e12338. doi: 10.1111/jicd.12338.
  32. Efficacy of prophylactic probiotics in combination with antibiotics versus antibiotics alone for colorectal surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    Wu XD et al; J Surg Oncol (2018) Mar 24. doi: 10.1002/jso.25038.
  33. Microbiota Alteration After Long-Term Consumption of Probiotics in the Elderly.
    Gao R et al; Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins (2018) Mar 8. doi: 10.1007/s12602-018-9403-1.
  34. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of probiotics for antibiotic-associated diarrhea: Systematic review with network meta-analysis.
    Cai J et al; United European Gastroenterol J (2018) Mar;6(2):169-180.
  35. Modifying progression of aging and reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases by probiotics and synbiotics.
    Lye HS et al; Front Biosci (Elite Ed) (2018) Mar 1;10:344-351.
  36. Probiotics and necrotizing enterocolitis.
    Patel RM et al; Semin Pediatr Surg (2018) Feb;27(1):39-46.
  37. Is it Useful to Administer Probiotics Together with Proton Pump Inhibitors in Children with Gastroesophageal Reflux?
    Belei O et al; J Neurogastroenterol Motil (2018) Jan 30;24(1):51-57.
  38. Probiotics: Myths or facts about their role in allergy prevention.
    Krzych-Fałta E et al; Adv Clin Exp Med (2018) Jan;27(1):119-124.

Clinical efficacy of probiotics in different disease conditions

Clinical Condition Results / Conclusions References

Gastrointestinal Diseases

This meta-analysis reviewed 84 trials including 10,351 patients; Probiotics are generally beneficial in treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

Ritchie ML and Romanuk TN, 2012 PLoS ONE 7(4):e34938.

Treatment of Acute Infectious Diarrhoea

This Cochrane review analysed 63 studies which includes 8014 subjects; Shortened duration of diarrhoea and reduced stool frequency.

Allen SJ et al, 2010 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 11:CD003048.

Prevention and Treatment of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea (AAD)

This meta-analysis reviewed 82 RCT’s involving 11811 subjects which suggests that probiotics are associated with reduction in AAD with an RR of 0.58. The treatment effect equates to an NNT of 13.

Hempel S et al, 2012 JAMA 307(18): 1959-1967.

Prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)

This review includes 31 RCT’s with 4492 subjects that reduce the risk of developing CDAD by 64% in adults and children.

Goldenberg JZ et al, 2013 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 5:CD006095.

Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

The study includes 19 RCT’s involving 1650 patients that concludes probiotics appear to be efficacious in IBS but the magnitude of benefit and the most effective species and strain are uncertain.

Moayyedi P et al, 2010 Gut 59:325-332.

Constipation

This meta-analysis reviewed 5 RCT’s involving 377 subjects and found that in adults, effect of treatment with Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and E.coli Nissle 1917 was observed in defecation frequency and stool consistency. In children, L. casei rhamnosus Lcr35 showed beneficial effect.

Chmielewska A and Szajewska H, 2010 World J Gastroenterol 16(1): 69-75.

Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)

This meta-analysis reviewed 11 RCT’s with total of 2176 subjects; The probiotic studies using strains of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces and/or S thermophilus to prevent NEC shows reduction in the frequency and reduction in overall mortality.

Deshpande G et al, 2010 Pediatrics [Meta-Analysis] 125:921-30.

Common Infectious diseases

A meta-analysis conducted on the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) analysed 10 trials involving 3451 participants and found that probiotics reduced the number of participants experiencing acute URTI.

Hao Q et al, 2011 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 9:CD006895.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

This review includes 4 RCT’s with total of 134 patients that shows probiotic therapies can reduce liver aminotransferases, total-cholesterol, TNF-α and improve insulin resistance in NAFLD patients.

Ma YY et al, 2013 World J Gastroenterol 19(40):6911-6918.

  1. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in adults and children.
    Goldenberg JZ et al; Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2017) Dec 19;12:CD006095. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006095.pub4
  2. Adjuvant Probiotics and the Intestinal Microbiome: Enhancing Vaccines and Immunotherapy Outcomes.
    Vitetta L et al; Vaccines (Basel) (2017) Dec 11;5(4). pii: E50. doi: 10.3390/vaccines5040050.
  3. Benefits of probiotics in preterm neonates in low-income and medium-income countries: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.
    Deshpande G et al; BMJ Open (2017) Dec 7;7(12);e017638. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017638.
  4. Probiotics in Newborns and Children.
    Lenfestey MW et al; Pediatr Clin North Am (2017) Dec;64(6):1271-1289. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2017.08.006.
  5. Psychobiotics: A new approach for treating mental illness?
    Misra S et al; Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr (2017) Nov 30; 1-7. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1399860
  6. The implication of probiotics in the prevention of dental caries.
    Lin TH et al; Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2017) Nov 30; doi: 10.1007/s00253-017-8664-z.
  7. Effects of probiotics on ghrelin and lungs in children with acute lung injury: A double-blind randomized, controlled trial.
    Wang Y et al; Pediatr Pulmonol (2017) Nov 29; doi: 10.1002/ppul.23922
  8. Probiotics for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection.
    Mills JP et al; Curr Opin Gastroenterol (2017) Nov 17; doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000410
  9. Probiotics and Their Use in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
    Amer M et al; Altern Ther Health Med (2017) Nov 14; pii: AT5641
  10. Probiotic, Prebiotic, and Brain Development.
    Cerdó T et al; Nutrients (2017) Nov 14;9(11). pii: E1247. doi: 10.3390/nu9111247
  11. Probiotic bacteria cell walls stimulate the activity of the intestinal epithelial cells and macrophage functionality.
    Lemme -Dumit JM et al; Benef Microbes (2017) Nov 10;1-12. doi: 10.3920/BM2016.0220
  12. Probiotics for management of functional abdominal pain disorders in children
    Gordan M et al; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2017); Issue 11. Art. No.: CD012849. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012849.
  13. The influence of probiotics on vaccine responses - A systematic review.
    Zimmermann P et al; Vaccine (2017) Sep 15; pii: S0264-410X(17)31167-2. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.08.069
  14. Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Human Health.
    Markowiak P et al; Nutrients (2017) Sep 15;9(9). pii: E1021. doi: 10.3390/nu9091021.
  15. Effects of Probiotics on Necrotizing Enterocolitis, Sepsis, Intraventricular Hemorrhage, Mortality, Length of Hospital Stay, and Weight Gain in Very Preterm Infants: A Meta-Analysis.
    Sun J et al; Adv Nutr. 2017 Sep 15;8(5):749-763. doi: 10.3945/an.116.014605. Print 2017 Sep.
  16. Probiotics Prevent Late-Onset Sepsis in Human Milk-Fed, Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Aceti A et al; Nutrients. 2017 Aug 22;9(8). pii: E904. doi: 10.3390/nu9080904.
  17. Probiotics and antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children: A review and new evidence on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during and after antibiotic treatment.
    Mantegazza C et al. Pharmacol Res. 2017 Aug 19. pii: S1043-6618(17)30923-4. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2017.08.001
  18. A randomized synbiotic trial to prevent sepsis among infants in rural India.
    Panigrahi P et al; Nature (2017) Aug 16; doi: 10.1038/nature23480
  19. Effect of Probiotics on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of 12 Randomized Controlled Trials.
    Yao K et al; Med Sci Monit (2017) Jun 22;23:3044-3053.
  20. Emerging concepts in the nutraceutical and functional properties of pectin-A Review.
    Naqash F et al; Carbohydr Polym (2017) Jul 15;168:227-239
  21. Intestinal microbiota is altered in patients with colon cancer and modified by probioticintervention.
    Hibberd AA et al; BMJ Open Gastroenterol (2017) Jul 3;4(1):e000145. doi: 10.1136/bmjgast-2017-000145. eCollection 2017
  22. Effects of probiotic intake on intestinal bifidobacteria of celiac patients.
    Martinello F et al; Arq Gastroenterol (2017) Apr-Jun;54(2):85-90. doi: 10.1590/S0004-2803.201700000-07. Epub 2017 Feb 23
  23. Probiotics for the Prevention of Nosocomial Diarrhea in Children.
    Hojsak I et al; J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr (2017) Jun 2; doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001637.
  24. Probiotics for prevention of radiation-induced diarrhea: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    Liu MM et al; PLoS One (2017) Jun 2;12(6): e0178870. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178870. eCollection 2017
  25. Assessing the Risk of Probiotic Dietary Supplements in the Context of Antibiotic Resistance.
    Zheng M et al; Front Microbiol (2017) May 19; 8:908. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00908. eCollection 2017
  26. Positive Effect of Probiotics on Constipation in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysisof Six Randomized Controlled Trials.
    Huang R et al; Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017 Apr 28;7:153. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2017.00153. eCollection 2017
  27. Probiotics to prevent necrotising enterocolitis and nosocomial infection in very low birth weight preterm infants.
    Uberos J et al; Br J Nutr. 2017 Apr 26:1-7. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517000769.
  28. Next-generation probiotics: the spectrum from probiotics to live biotherapeutics.
    O'Toole PW et al; Nat Microbiol (2017) Apr 25; 2:17057
  29. Diabetes Management by Probiotics: Current Knowledge and Future Perspective.
    Homayouni-Rad A et al; (2017) Int J Vitam Nutr Res. Apr 24:1-13.
  30. The effect of probiotics as a treatment for constipation in elderly people: A systematic review.
    Martínez-Martínez MI et al; Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2017 Apr 14;71:142-149. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2017.04.004
  31. Probiotics for Preventing and Treating Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Current Evidence.
    Zhong C et al; J Clin Gastroenterol (2017) Apr;51(4):300-311.
  32. Probiotics and Subclinical Psychological Symptoms in Healthy Participants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    McKean J et al; J Altern Complement Med (2017) Apr;23(4):249-258. doi: 10.1089/acm.2016.0023
  33. Probiotics may delay the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by restoring the gutmicrobiota structure and improving intestinal endotoxemia.
    Xue L et al; Sci Rep. 2017 Mar 28;7:45176. doi: 10.1038/srep45176.
  34. Impact of Antibiotics on Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Antibiotic- Associated Diarrhea.
    Silverman MA et al; Gastroenterol Clin North Am (2017) Mar; 46(1):61-76.
  35. Effect of probiotic supplementation on total lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and short chain fatty acids in 2–5-year-old children
    Hemalatha Ret al; Microb Ecol Health Dis. (2017) Mar 10; 28(1): 1298340.
  36. The influence of probiotics for preterm neonates on the incidence of atopic dermatitis-results from a historically controlled cohort study.
    Damm JA et al; Arch Dermatol Res (2017) Mar 7; doi: 10.1007/s00403-017-1725-4
  37. Probiotics: A New Era of Biotherapy.
    Alok A et al; Adv Biomed Res (2017) Mar 7; 6:31. doi: 10.4103/2277-9175.192625
  38. Probiotic use in an infectious disease setting.
    Reid G et al; Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther (2017) Mar 1:1-7.
  39. The probiotics in dentistry: a narrative review.
    Pujia AM et al; Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci (2017) Mar;21(6):1405-1412.
  40. Effects of prebiotics and probiotics on gastrointestinal tract lymphoid tissue in hiv infected patients.
    Feria MG et al; Rev Med Chil (2017) Feb;145(2):219-229. doi: 10.4067/S0034-98872017000200010.
  41. Effects of probiotics supplement in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis of randomized trials.
    Hu YM et al; Med Clin (Barc) (2017) Feb 22; pii: S0025-7753(16)30716-3.
  42. The effects of probiotics on depressive symptoms in humans: a systematic review.
    Wallace CJ et al; Ann Gen Psychiatry (2017) Feb 20;16:14.
  43. Potential Beneficial Effects of Probiotics on Human Migraine Headache: A Literature Review.
    Dai YJ et al; Pain Physician (2017) Feb;20(2): E251-E255.
  44. The "Golden Age" of Probiotics: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized and Observational Studies in Preterm Infants.
    Dermyshi E et al; Neonatology (2017) Feb 15;112(1):9-23. doi: 10.1159/000454668
  45. Timely use of Probiotics in Hospitalized Adults Prevents Clostridium difficile Infection: a Systematic Review with Meta-Regression Analysis.
    Shen NT et al; Gastroenterology (2017) Feb 9; pii: S0016-5085(17)30136-1.
  46. Role of lactic acid probiotic bacteria in IBD.
    Vemuri R et al; Curr Pharm Des (2017) Feb 6; doi: 10.2174/1381612823666170207100025
  47. Probiotic strains modulate cytokine production and the immune interplay between human peripheral blood mononucear cells and colon cancer cells.
    Djaldetti M et al; FEMS Microbiol Lett (2017) Jan 18; pii: fnx014.
  48. Review of the mechanisms of probiotic actions in the prevention of colorectal cancer.
    Dos Reis SA et al; Nutr Res (2017) Jan; 37:1-19. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2016.11.009
  49. Review of the mechanisms of probiotic actions in the prevention of colorectal cancer.
    Dos Reis SA et al; Nutr Res (2017) Jan;37:1-19. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2016.11.009
  50. Can probiotics modulate human disease by impacting intestinal barrier function?
    Bron PA et al; Br J Nutr (2017) Jan;117(1):93-107. doi: 10.1017/S0007114516004037

Clinical efficacy of probiotics in different disease conditions

Clinical Condition Results / Conclusions References

Gastrointestinal Diseases

This meta-analysis reviewed 84 trials including 10,351 patients; Probiotics are generally beneficial in treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

Ritchie ML and Romanuk TN, 2012 PLoS ONE 7(4):e34938.

Treatment of Acute Infectious Diarrhoea

This Cochrane review analysed 63 studies which includes 8014 subjects; Shortened duration of diarrhoea and reduced stool frequency.

Allen SJ et al, 2010 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 11:CD003048.

Prevention and Treatment of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea (AAD)

This meta-analysis reviewed 82 RCT’s involving 11811 subjects which suggests that probiotics are associated with reduction in AAD with an RR of 0.58. The treatment effect equates to an NNT of 13.

Hempel S et al, 2012 JAMA 307(18): 1959-1967.

Prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)

This review includes 31 RCT’s with 4492 subjects that reduce the risk of developing CDAD by 64% in adults and children.

Goldenberg JZ et al, 2013 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 5:CD006095.

Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

The study includes 19 RCT’s involving 1650 patients that concludes probiotics appear to be efficacious in IBS but the magnitude of benefit and the most effective species and strain are uncertain.

Moayyedi P et al, 2010 Gut 59:325-332.

Constipation

This meta-analysis reviewed 5 RCT’s involving 377 subjects and found that in adults, effect of treatment with Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and E.coli Nissle 1917 was observed in defecation frequency and stool consistency. In children, L. casei rhamnosus Lcr35 showed beneficial effect.

Chmielewska A and Szajewska H, 2010 World J Gastroenterol 16(1): 69-75.

Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)

This meta-analysis reviewed 11 RCT’s with total of 2176 subjects; The probiotic studies using strains of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces and/or S thermophilus to prevent NEC shows reduction in the frequency and reduction in overall mortality.

Deshpande G et al, 2010 Pediatrics [Meta-Analysis] 125:921-30.

Common Infectious diseases

A meta-analysis conducted on the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) analysed 10 trials involving 3451 participants and found that probiotics reduced the number of participants experiencing acute URTI.

Hao Q et al, 2011 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 9:CD006895.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

This review includes 4 RCT’s with total of 134 patients that shows probiotic therapies can reduce liver aminotransferases, total-cholesterol, TNF-α and improve insulin resistance in NAFLD patients.

Ma YY et al, 2013 World J Gastroenterol 19(40):6911-6918.

  1. Surfacing role of probiotics in cancer prophylaxis and therapy: A systematic review.
    Dasari S et al; Clin Nutr (2016) Nov 24; pii: S0261-5614(16)31333-4
  2. Effect of probiotics on vaginal health in pregnancy. EFFPRO, a randomized controlled trial.
    Gille C et al; Am J Obstet Gynecol (2016) Nov;215(5):608; e1-608.e7
  3. Pre- and probiotics for allergy prevention: time to revisit recommendations?
    Forsberg A et al; Clin Exp Allergy. 2016 Oct 22. doi: 10.1111/cea.12838
  4. Efficacy of indigenous probiotic Lactobacillus strains to reduce cadmium bioaccessibility - An in vitro digestion model.
    Kumar N et al; Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Oct 21
  5. The effects of administration of the Lactobacillus gasseri strain CP2305 on quality of life, clinical symptoms and changes in gene expression in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.
    Nobutani K et al; J Appl Microbiol. 2016 Oct 20. Doi: 10.1111/jam.13329.
  6. Improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by probiotic strains of Indian gut origin in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice.
    Balakumar M et al; Eur J Nutr. 2016 Oct 18.
  7. Diabetes management by probiotics: Current knowledge and future perspectives.
    Rad AH et al; Curr Diabetes Rev. 2016 Oct 14
  8. Effects of Probiotics on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obese Children and Adolescents: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
    Famouri F et al; J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016 Oct 13.
  9. Lactobacillus rhamnosus induced epithelial cell apoptosis, ameliorates inflammation and prevents colon cancer development in an animal model.
    Gamallat Y et al; Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Oct;83:536-541. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2016.07.001.
  10. New Insights on the Use of Dietary Polyphenols or Probiotics for the Management of Arterial Hypertension.
    De Brito Alves JL et al;Front Physiol. 2016 Oct 6;7:448. Ecollection 2016.
  11. Prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis with probiotics: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Sawh SC et al; peerj. 2016 Oct 5;4:e2429. Ecollection 2016.
  12. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment improves intestinal permeability and modulates inflammatory response and homeostasis of spleen and colon in experimental model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.
    Khailova L et al; Clin Nutr. 2016 Oct 1. pii: S0261-5614(16)31265-1. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2016.09.025.
  13. An In Vitro Approach to Study Effects of Prebiotics and Probiotics on the Faecal Microbiota and Selected Immune Parameters Relevant to the Elderly
    Liu Y et al; PLoS One. 2016 Sep 9;11(9):e0162604. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162604. eCollection 2016.
  14. Unexpected improvement in core autism spectrum disorder symptoms after long-term treatment with probiotics.
    Grossi E et al; SAGE Open Med Case Rep. 2016 Aug 26;4:2050313X16666231
  15. Probiotics in very preterm infants: the PiPS trial.
    Deshpande G et al; Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):655. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31271-5.
  16. Probiotic-derived ferrichrome inhibits colon cancer progression via JNK-mediated apoptosis.
    Konishi H et al; Nat Commun. 2016 Aug 10;7:12365. doi: 10.1038/ncomms12365.
  17. Probiotics, gut microbiota and their influence on host health and disease.
    Sánchez B et al; Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Aug 8. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201600240. [Epub ahead of print]
  18. Disturbance in the Mucosa-Associated Commensal Bacteria Is Associated with the Exacerbation of Chronic Colitis by Repeated Psychological Stress; Is That the New Target of Probiotics?
    Arase S et al; PLoS One. 2016 Aug 8;11(8):e0160736. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160736. eCollection 2016.
  19. Effect of Probiotics on Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
    Huang R et al; Nutrients. 2016 Aug 6;8(8). pii: E483. doi: 10.3390/nu8080483.
  20. Systematic review and meta-analysis: Multi-strain probiotics as adjunct therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication and prevention of adverse events.
    McFarland LV et al; United European Gastroenterol J. 2016 Aug;4(4):546-61. doi: 10.1177/2050640615617358. Epub 2015 Nov 13
  21. Probiotics: Prevention of Severe Pneumonia and Endotracheal Colonization Trial-PROSPECT: a pilot trial.
    Cook DJ et al; Trials. 2016 Aug 2;17:377. doi: 10.1186/s13063-016-1495-x
  22. Probiotics for prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    Wang Y  et al; Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Aug;95(31):e4509. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000004509.
  23. Probiotic Conjugated Linoleic Acid Mediated Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells by Downregulation of NFκB.
    Kadirareddy RH et al; Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(7):3395-403.
  24. Probiotics and Time to Achieve Full Enteral Feeding in Human Milk-Fed and Formula-Fed Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Aceti A et al; Nutrients. 2016 Jul 30;8(8). pii: E471. doi: 10.3390/nu8080471.
  25. Combination of specific allergen and probiotics induces specific regulatory B cells and enhances specific immunotherapy effect on allergic rhinitis.
    Xu LZ et al; Oncotarget. 2016 Jul 29. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.10946. [Epub ahead of print]
  26. Probiotics and the Microbiome in Celiac Disease: A Randomised Controlled Trial.
    Harnett J et al; Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:9048574. doi: 10.1155/2016/9048574. Epub 2016 Jul 21.
  27. The efficacy and safety of probiotics for prevention of chemoradiotherapy-induced diarrhea in people with abdominal and pelvic cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Wang YH et al;  Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jun 22. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.102.
  28. Probiotics for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Samah S et al; Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2016 Jun 18;118:172-182. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2016.06.014. [Epub ahead of print].
  29. The Role of Probiotics in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Autophagy in Intestinal Epithelial Cells.
    Han C et al; Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016 Jun 17;38(6):2464-2478
  30. Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics on Obesity, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review of Human Clinical Trials.
    Sáez-Lara MJ et al; Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Jun 13;17(6). pii: E928. doi: 10.3390/ijms17060928.
  31. Centenary of the death of Elie Metchnikoff: A visionary and an outstanding team leader.
    Cavaillon JM et al; Microbes Infect. 2016 Jun 7. pii: S1286-4579(16)30069-doi:0.1016/j.micinf.2016.05.008
  32. Effects of probiotic type, dose and treatment duration on irritable bowel syndrome diagnosed by Rome III criteria: a meta-analysis.
    Zhang Y et al; BMC Gastroenterol. 2016 Jun 13;16(1):62. doi: 10.1186/s12876-016-0470-z
  33. Effect of probiotic and prebiotic fermented milk on skin and intestinal conditions in healthy young female students.
    Mori N et al; Biosci Microbiota Food Health. 2016;35(3):105-12. doi: 10.12938/bmfh.2015-022. Epub 2016 Apr 1.
  34. The effect of perioperative probiotics treatment for colorectal cancer: short-term outcomes of a randomized controlled trial
    Yang et al (2016) Oncotarget Jan 27. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.7045. [Epub ahead of print].
  35. The effectiveness and safety of treatments used for acute diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis in children: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
    Florez et al (2016) Systematic Reviews 5:14.
  36. Safety and acceptability of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis 35624 in Bangladeshi infants: a phase I randomized clinical trial.
    Hoy-Schulz et al (2016) BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 16:44.
  37. Therapeutic application of Synbiotics, a fusion of Probiotics and Prebiotics and biogenics as a new concept for Oral Candida infections: A Mini Review.
    Ohshima et al (2016) Front Microbiol 7:10.
  38. Interventions that affect gastrointestinal motility in hospitalized adult patients.
    Asrani et al (2016) Medicine 95(5):e2463.
  39. Clinical Uses of Probiotics
    Islam (2016) Medicine 95(5):e2658.
  40. Saccharomyces boulardii in Helicobacter pylori eradication in children: A randomized trial from Iran.
    Namkin et al (2016) Iran J Pediatr 26(1):e3768.
  41. Consumption of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 impacts upper respiratory tract infection and the function of NK and T cells in healthy adults
    Meng et al (2016) Mol Nutr Food Res Jan 28. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201500665 [Epub ahead of print].
  42. Prevalence of probiotic use among inpatients: A descriptive study of 145 U.S. hospitals.
    Yi et al (2016) Am J Infect Control Jan 25. pii:S0196-6553(15)01228-6.
  43. Probiotics for treatment and primary prevention of allergic diseases and asthma: looking back and moving forward.
    West et al (2016) Expert Rev Clin Immunol Jan 28 [Epub ahead of print].
  44. Association between probiotic and yogurt consumption and kidney disease: insights from NHANES.
    Yacoub et al (2016) Nutrition Journal 15:10.
  45. Probiotic and functional characterization of Bifidobacteria of Indian human origin.
    Awasti et al (2016) Feb 5. doi: 10.1111/jam.13086. [Epub ahead of print]
  46. The case in favour of probiotics before, during and after pregnancy: insights from the first 1,500 days.
    Reid et al (2016) Benef Microbes 1-10. [Epub ahead of print]
  47. Elie Metchnikoff, the Man and the Myth.
    Gordon (2016) J Innate Immun Feb 3. [Epub ahead of print].
  48. Synbiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.
    Chang et al (2016) JAMA Pediatr Jan 25. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3943. [Epub ahead of print]
  49. Prebiotics and synbiotics: dietary strategies for improving gut health.
    Krumbeck et al (2016) Curr Opin Gastroenterol 32(2):110-9.
  50. The intestinal microbiota and the role of probiotics in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: a review.
    Moraes-Filho and Quigley (2015) Arq Gastroenterol 52(4):331-8.
  51. Probiotic compared with standard milk for high-caries children: A cluster randomized trial.
    Rodriguez et al (2016) J Dent Res Jan 8. pii: 0022034515623935. [Epub ahead of print]
  52. Anti-Aging effects of Probiotics.
    Sharma et al (2016) J Drugs Dermatol 15(1):9-12.
  53. Immunomodulation properties of multi-species fermented milks.
    Foligne et al (2016) 53(Pt A):60-9.
  54. Probiotics and diseases of altered IgE regulation: A short review.
    Smith-Norowitz and Bluth (2016) J Immunotoxicol 13(2):136-40.
  55. Restoring vaginal microbiota: biological control of bacterial vaginosis. A prospective case-control study using Lactobacillus rhamnosus BMX 54 as adjuvant treatment against bacterial vaginosis.
    Recine et al (2016) Arch Gynecol Obstet 293(1):101-7.
  56. Induction of regulatory T cells: A role for probiotics and prebiotics to suppress autoimmunity.
    Dwivedi et al (2016) Autoimmunity Rev 7 Jan, doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2016.01.002
  57. Use of Probiotics in Future Prevention and Treatment of Oral Infections
    Jorgensen and Keller (2016) Oral Infections and General Health 4:125-136.
  58. Probiotics alter the intestinal microbiome but do not prevent high fat diet dysbiosis in primates.
    Prince et al (2016) Amer J of Obstetrics & Gynecology 214(1):S44.
  59. Cardiovascular Benefits of probiotics: A review of experimental and clinical studies.
    Thushara et al (2016) Food Funct 4 Jan, doi:10.1039/C5FO01190F.

Clinical efficacy of probiotics in different disease conditions

Clinical Condition Results / Conclusions References

Gastrointestinal Diseases

This meta-analysis reviewed 84 trials including 10,351 patients; Probiotics are generally beneficial in treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

Ritchie ML and Romanuk TN, 2012 PLoS ONE 7(4):e34938.

Treatment of Acute Infectious Diarrhoea

This Cochrane review analysed 63 studies which includes 8014 subjects; Shortened duration of diarrhoea and reduced stool frequency.

Allen SJ et al, 2010 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 11:CD003048.

Prevention and Treatment of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea (AAD)

This meta-analysis reviewed 82 RCT’s involving 11811 subjects which suggests that probiotics are associated with reduction in AAD with an RR of 0.58. The treatment effect equates to an NNT of 13.

Hempel S et al, 2012 JAMA 307(18): 1959-1967.

Prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)

This review includes 31 RCT’s with 4492 subjects that reduce the risk of developing CDAD by 64% in adults and children.

Goldenberg JZ et al, 2013 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 5:CD006095.

Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

The study includes 19 RCT’s involving 1650 patients that concludes probiotics appear to be efficacious in IBS but the magnitude of benefit and the most effective species and strain are uncertain.

Moayyedi P et al, 2010 Gut 59:325-332.

Constipation

This meta-analysis reviewed 5 RCT’s involving 377 subjects and found that in adults, effect of treatment with Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and E.coli Nissle 1917 was observed in defecation frequency and stool consistency. In children, L. casei rhamnosus Lcr35 showed beneficial effect.

Chmielewska A and Szajewska H, 2010 World J Gastroenterol 16(1): 69-75.

Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)

This meta-analysis reviewed 11 RCT’s with total of 2176 subjects; The probiotic studies using strains of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces and/or S thermophilus to prevent NEC shows reduction in the frequency and reduction in overall mortality.

Deshpande G et al, 2010 Pediatrics [Meta-Analysis] 125:921-30.

Common Infectious diseases

A meta-analysis conducted on the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) analysed 10 trials involving 3451 participants and found that probiotics reduced the number of participants experiencing acute URTI.

Hao Q et al, 2011 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 9:CD006895.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

This review includes 4 RCT’s with total of 134 patients that shows probiotic therapies can reduce liver aminotransferases, total-cholesterol, TNF-α and improve insulin resistance in NAFLD patients.

Ma YY et al, 2013 World J Gastroenterol 19(40):6911-6918.

  1. An overview of advanced technologies for selection of Probiotics and their expectancy: A Review.
    Yadav R and Shukla P (2015) Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr Oct 27:0 [Epub ahead of print].
  2. Clinical application of probiotics in Diabetes Mellitus: Therapeutics and New Perspectives.
    Bordalo Tonucci L et al (2015) Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr Oct 25:0 [Epub ahead of print].
  3. Meta-analysis: Effects of probiotic supplementation on lipid profiles in normal to mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals.
    Shimizu M et al (2015) PLOS ONE 10(10):e0139795.
  4. Probiotic supplementation for preventing invasive fungal infections in preterm neonates – a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Agrawal S et al (2015) Mycoses 58(11):642-51.
  5. Are probiotics useful for Helicobacter pylori eradication?
    Homan M and Orel R (2015) World J Gastroenterol 21(37): 10644-10653.
  6. Probiotics in 2015: Their Scope and Use.
    Sanders ME (2015) J Clin Gastroenterol 49 Suppl 1:S2-6.
  7. Does the scientific evidence support the advertising claims made for products containing Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacteria lactis? A Systematic Review.
    Melendez-Illanes L et al (2015) J Public Health (Oxf) pii: fdv151. [Epub ahead of print].
  8. Efficacy and safety of vaginal medicinal product containing three strains of probiotic bacteria: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial.
    Tomusiak A et al (2015) Drug Design, Development and Therapy 9: 5345–5354.
  9. VSL#3 induces and maintains short term clinical response in patients with active microscopic colitis: a two-phase randomised clinical trial.
    Rohatgi S et al (2015) BMJ Open Gastroenterol 2(1):e000018.
  10. Probiotics are helpful in hepatic encephalopathy: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.
    Saab et al (2015) Liver Int Nov 12. doi: 10.1111/liv.13005. [Epub ahead of print].
  11. Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Aceti A et al (2015) Ital J Pediatr 41(1):89. doi: 10.1186/s13052-015-0199-2.
  12. Effect of probiotics on blood lipid concentration: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
    Cho et al 2015 Medicine (Baltimore) 94(43):e1714.
  13. Use of probiotics in pediatric infectious diseases.
    Caffarelli C et al (2015) Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Oct 23:1-19. [Epub ahead of print].
  14. Probiotic supplementation influences faecal short chain fatty acids in infants.
    Kim HK et al (2015) Benef Microbes 13:1-8. [Epub ahead of print].
  15. Establishing a causal link between gut microbes, body weight gain and glucose metabolism.
    Stenman LK et al (2015) Benef Microbes 13:1-12. [Epub ahead of print].
  16. Probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum modulates immunoglobulin levels and cytokines expression in whey proteins sensitized mice.
    Shandilya UK et al (2015) J Sci Food Agric Oct 13. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7497. [Epub ahead of print].
  17. Is there a role for probiotics in the prevention of preterm birth?
    Yang S et al (2015) Front Immunol 6:62. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00062.
  18. A review of the systematic review process and its applicability for use in evaluating evidence for health claims on probiotic foods in the European Union.
    Glanville J et al (2015) Nutr J 14(1):16. doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0004-5.
  19. Probiotics as a complementary therapeutic approach in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
    Ferolla SM et al (2015) World J Gastroenterol 7(3):559-65.
  20. Alteration of Gut Microbiota and Efficacy of Probiotics in Functional Constipation.
    Choi CH and Chang SK (2015) J Neurogastroenterol Motil 21(1):4-7.
  21. The history of probiotics: the untold story.
    Ozen M and Dinleyici EC (2015) Benef Microbes 9:1-7.
  22. The impact of early gut microbiota modulation on the risk of child disease: alert to accuracy in probiotic studies.
    Isolauri E and Salminen S (2015) 25:1-5.
  23. Prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, and the immune system: experimental data and clinical evidence.
    Frei R et al (2015) Curr Opin Gastroenterol 31(2):153-8.

Clinical efficacy of probiotics in different disease conditions

Clinical Condition Results / Conclusions References

Gastrointestinal Diseases

This meta-analysis reviewed 84 trials including 10,351 patients; Probiotics are generally beneficial in treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

Ritchie ML and Romanuk TN, 2012 PLoS ONE 7(4):e34938.

Treatment of Acute Infectious Diarrhoea

This Cochrane review analysed 63 studies which includes 8014 subjects; Shortened duration of diarrhoea and reduced stool frequency.

Allen SJ et al, 2010 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 11:CD003048.

Prevention and Treatment of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea (AAD)

This meta-analysis reviewed 82 RCT’s involving 11811 subjects which suggests that probiotics are associated with reduction in AAD with an RR of 0.58. The treatment effect equates to an NNT of 13.

Hempel S et al, 2012 JAMA 307(18): 1959-1967.

Prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)

This review includes 31 RCT’s with 4492 subjects that reduce the risk of developing CDAD by 64% in adults and children.

Goldenberg JZ et al, 2013 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 5:CD006095.

Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

The study includes 19 RCT’s involving 1650 patients that concludes probiotics appear to be efficacious in IBS but the magnitude of benefit and the most effective species and strain are uncertain.

Moayyedi P et al, 2010 Gut 59:325-332.

Constipation

This meta-analysis reviewed 5 RCT’s involving 377 subjects and found that in adults, effect of treatment with Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and E.coli Nissle 1917 was observed in defecation frequency and stool consistency. In children, L. casei rhamnosus Lcr35 showed beneficial effect.

Chmielewska A and Szajewska H, 2010 World J Gastroenterol 16(1): 69-75.

Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)

This meta-analysis reviewed 11 RCT’s with total of 2176 subjects; The probiotic studies using strains of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces and/or S thermophilus to prevent NEC shows reduction in the frequency and reduction in overall mortality.

Deshpande G et al, 2010 Pediatrics [Meta-Analysis] 125:921-30.

Common Infectious diseases

A meta-analysis conducted on the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) analysed 10 trials involving 3451 participants and found that probiotics reduced the number of participants experiencing acute URTI.

Hao Q et al, 2011 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 9:CD006895.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

This review includes 4 RCT’s with total of 134 patients that shows probiotic therapies can reduce liver aminotransferases, total-cholesterol, TNF-α and improve insulin resistance in NAFLD patients.

Ma YY et al, 2013 World J Gastroenterol 19(40):6911-6918.

  1. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic.
    Hill C et al (2014) Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 11: 506-514.
  2. Probiotics and Prebiotics: prospects for public health and nutritional recommendations.
    Sanders ME et al (2014) Ann N.Y. Acad Sci 1309:19-29.
  3. Can prebiotics and probiotics improve therapeutic outcomes for undernourished individuals?
    Sheridan PO et al (2014) Gut Microbes 5(1):74-82.
  4. Effects of genetic, processing or product formulation changes on efficacy and safety of probiotics.Sanders ME et al (2014) Ann N Y Acad Sci 1309:1-18.
  5. Aging gut and role of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics
    Patel PJ et al (2014) Journal of Clinical Gerontology & Geriatrics 5:3-6.
  6. Impact of genomics on the field of probiotic research.
    Johnson BR and KlaenhammerTR (2014) Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 106(1):141-56.
  7. Novel probiotics and prebiotics: road to the market.
    Kumar H et al (2014) Curr Opin Biotechnol 32C:99-103.
  8. Necrotizing Enterocolitis – Is there evidence for use of probiotics?
    Yang E et al (2014) Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 47(9):804-10.
  9. Gastrointestinal Mucositis – current evidence and potential clinical applications.
    Touchefeu Y et al (2014) Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 40(5):409-21.
  10. Gut microbiota, probiotics and diabetes.
    Gomes AC et al (2014) Nutrition Journal 13:60.
  11. Effectiveness of probiotics on the duration of illness in healthy children and adults who develop common acute respiratory infectious conditions.
    King S et al (2014) Br J Nutr 112(1):41-54.
  12. Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis – Recent Evidence.
    Aoki T et al (2014) Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 49(5):552-563.Koga H et al (2013) Hepatology International 7(2):767-774.
  13. The intestinal microbiome, probiotics and prebiotics in neurogastroenterology.
    Saulnier DM et al (2013) Gut Microbes 4(1):17-27.
  14. Short chain fatty acids play an important role in immunity
    Matsuki T et al (2013) PLoS ONE 8(4):e63053.
  15. An update on the use and investigation of probiotics in health and disease.
    Sanders ME et al (2013) Gut 62:787-796.
  16. Probiotics in breast cancer
    Toi M et al (2013) Current Nutrition & Food Science 9 (3):194–200.
  17. Are probiotic benefits strain specific?
    Wang J et al (2014) The ISME Journal 1-15.
  18. Vaginal Microbiome and Host response
    Bisanz JE et al (2014) PLoS One 9(8): e104511.

Clinical efficacy of probiotics in different disease conditions

Clinical Condition Results / Conclusions References

Gastrointestinal Diseases

This meta-analysis reviewed 84 trials including 10,351 patients; Probiotics are generally beneficial in treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

Ritchie ML and Romanuk TN, 2012 PLoS ONE 7(4):e34938.

Treatment of Acute Infectious Diarrhoea

This Cochrane review analysed 63 studies which includes 8014 subjects; Shortened duration of diarrhoea and reduced stool frequency.

Allen SJ et al, 2010 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 11:CD003048.

Prevention and Treatment of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea (AAD)

This meta-analysis reviewed 82 RCT’s involving 11811 subjects which suggests that probiotics are associated with reduction in AAD with an RR of 0.58. The treatment effect equates to an NNT of 13.

Hempel S et al, 2012 JAMA 307(18): 1959-1967.

Prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)

This review includes 31 RCT’s with 4492 subjects that reduce the risk of developing CDAD by 64% in adults and children.

Goldenberg JZ et al, 2013 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 5:CD006095.

Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

The study includes 19 RCT’s involving 1650 patients that concludes probiotics appear to be efficacious in IBS but the magnitude of benefit and the most effective species and strain are uncertain.

Moayyedi P et al, 2010 Gut 59:325-332.

Constipation

This meta-analysis reviewed 5 RCT’s involving 377 subjects and found that in adults, effect of treatment with Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and E.coli Nissle 1917 was observed in defecation frequency and stool consistency. In children, L. casei rhamnosus Lcr35 showed beneficial effect.

Chmielewska A and Szajewska H, 2010 World J Gastroenterol 16(1): 69-75.

Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)

This meta-analysis reviewed 11 RCT’s with total of 2176 subjects; The probiotic studies using strains of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces and/or S thermophilus to prevent NEC shows reduction in the frequency and reduction in overall mortality.

Deshpande G et al, 2010 Pediatrics [Meta-Analysis] 125:921-30.

Common Infectious diseases

A meta-analysis conducted on the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) analysed 10 trials involving 3451 participants and found that probiotics reduced the number of participants experiencing acute URTI.

Hao Q et al, 2011 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 9:CD006895.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

This review includes 4 RCT’s with total of 134 patients that shows probiotic therapies can reduce liver aminotransferases, total-cholesterol, TNF-α and improve insulin resistance in NAFLD patients.

Ma YY et al, 2013 World J Gastroenterol 19(40):6911-6918.