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a) Microbiota: The collection of microbial organisms inhabiting a defined environment, such as a specific body site.
b) Microbiome: The collection of genes and genomes within the microbiota.
c) Metagenomics: The study of the collective genomic content from an environment.
d) Intestinal Microflora: The mixture of 400 to 500 different species of bacteria in the intestine.
d) Dysbiosis: Alterations in the relative abundance of microbial groups or functions that cause an imbalance compared to a healthy state, generally leading to a detrimental change in health.
e) Enterotypes: A classification of living organisms based on the bacteriological system in the human gut microbiome.
f) Fecal Microbiota Transplant: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) also known as a stool transplant is the process of transplantation of fecal bacteria from a healthy individual into a recipient.
g) Probiotics: Probiotics are defined as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host.” (FAO/ WHO, 2001)
h) Prebiotics: Prebiotics are dietary substances (mostly consisting of nonstarch polysaccharides and oligosaccharides poorly digested by human enzymes) that nurture a selected group of microorganisms living in the gut. They favor the growth of beneficial bacteria over that of harmful ones.
i) Synbiotics: Synbiotics are appropriate combinations of prebiotics and probiotics. A synbiotic product exerts both a prebiotic and probiotic effect.