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a) Microbiota: The collection of microbial organisms inhabiting a defined environment, such as a specific body site.

b) Microbiome: The collection of genes and genomes within the microbiota.

c) Metagenomics: The study of the collective genomic content from an environment.

d) Intestinal Microflora: The mixture of 400 to 500 different species of bacteria in the intestine.

d) Dysbiosis: Alterations in the relative abundance of microbial groups or functions that cause an imbalance compared to a healthy state, generally leading to a detrimental change in health.

e) Enterotypes: A classification of living organisms based on the bacteriological system in the human gut microbiome.

f) Fecal Microbiota Transplant: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) also known as a stool transplant is the process of transplantation of fecal bacteria from a healthy individual into a recipient.

g) Probiotics: Probiotics are defined as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host.” (FAO/ WHO, 2001)

h) Prebiotics: Prebiotics are dietary substances (mostly consisting of nonstarch polysaccharides and oligosaccharides poorly digested by human enzymes) that nurture a selected group of microorganisms living in the gut. They favor the growth of beneficial bacteria over that of harmful ones.

i) Synbiotics: Synbiotics are appropriate combinations of prebiotics and probiotics. A synbiotic product exerts both a prebiotic and probiotic effect.

Gut Microbiota and Probiotic Science Foundation instituted the Lifetime Achievement Award to recognize the outstanding contribution of stalwarts to the science and profession of Probiotics and Gut Microbiota

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